The US State Department has released its Trafficking in Persons Report 2007 which details the global slave trade in mostly women and children for labor and sex. This year marks the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slave trade (but not legalized slavery) and this ghastly system continues. The report seeks to “to raise global awareness, to highlight efforts of the international community, and to encourage foreign governments to take effective actions to counter all forms of trafficking in persons.” Getting governments to take serious interest in stopping the trafficking of human beings is a tall order. Few nations where the practice persists are interested in devoting the resources necessary to protect the globes most vulnerable victims.
The Report defines human trafficking as:
- Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or
- The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
The scope of global human trafficking can only be estimated. According to US government research, about 800,000 people are trafficked across borders (internal trafficking is not calculated) and about 80 percent of trafficked persons are women and girls and around 50 percent are minors.
The Report categorizes countries into tiers according to their compliance with the minimum standards for combating human trafficking. Teir 1 are those who fully comply, Teir 2 are those countries making significant efforts to comply, and Tier 3 are those who don’t really try to comply at all. In addition there is a “Tier 2 Watch List” which includes countries that verge on slipping down to Tier 3.
The Government of Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Russia is placed on Tier 2 Watch List for a fourth consecutive year for its continued failure to show evidence of increasing its overall efforts to combat trafficking, particularly in providing trafficking victims with protection. Specific trafficking victim assistance legislation, pending before the Duma, was neither passed nor enacted in 2006. Russia continued modest progress in its law enforcement efforts, particularly in its trafficking investigation efforts. In early 2007, the Ministry of Interior created the federal-level Counter Human Trafficking Unit to further strengthen anti-trafficking law enforcement coordination. In July 2006, the Duma passed asset forfeiture legislation that permits prosecutors to seek the forfeiture of the assets of convicted persons, including traffickers. In January, the Public Chamber of the national government provided grants to three anti-trafficking NGOs. Two local governments signed agreements with NGOs that establish a mechanism for victim referral. Although these are positive developments, Russia has yet to provide comprehensive human trafficking victim protections, covering the entire process from victim identification through reintegration and support. Overall, victim protection and assistance remains the weakest component of Russia’s anti-trafficking efforts.